By Flor G. A. M. Aarts, Herman Chr. Wekker (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch: Contrastieve grammatica Engels / Nederlands
For example, words like ner- The Units of Grammatical Description 17 vousness and indignation no doubt refer to states, yet there are valid grounds for not calling them verbs but nouns. We can invoke morphological criteria in the case of derivational and inflectional suffixes that are uniquely associated with a particular class of words. Thus we can claim that words in -ize are verbs and that words in -ity belong to the class of nouns. In the table below the word classes on the left are typically associated with the inflectional and derivational suffixes on the right: Inflectional suffixes Derivational suffixes Verbs walk-s walk-ed walk-ing walk-ed simpl-ify modern-ize Nouns boy-s boy-'s men-'s found-ation dual-ity dark-ness child-hood friend-ship Adjectives great-er great-est work-able fool-ish life-less Adverbs back-ward(s) cross-wise - Morphological criteria are not always reliable, either.
49 The Units of Grammatical Description I wonder whose responsibility this is Who(m) did you send it to? What is your definition of intelligence? Do you know which car is cheaper? The twins resemble each other so much that I don't know which is which As the last two examples show, which is used instead of who or what when a selection is made from a specified set. Reciprocal pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another can only be used in sentences with plural or coordinated subjects.
3 Copulas be, become, look, grow ... 3 Adjectives Morphologically, many words can be identified as adjectives in English on the basis of typical derivational suffixes like -able, -ish, -ic(al) and -less: drinkable, boyish, economic(al) , roofless. Many adjectives also take the inflectional suffixes -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative degrees. Syntactic function Syntactically, adjectives typically function as heads of adjective phrases. 1. 2. Adjectives can be used as noun phrase heads in English.