A Course In Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar GPSG by Paul Bennett

By Paul Bennett

The "Generalized word constitution Grammar" GPSG is a big syntactic thought which has been followed through the computational linguistics global. this article assumes an introductory wisdom of syntactic idea and covers all of the major constructs of the grammar.

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There is also a good short account in Cook (1988: pp. 94–102); you can ignore what he says about ‘INFL’. Kornai & Pullum (1990) is a study of the various claims of X-bar theory and of how restrictive it really is; this is relatively advanced, but merits reading at some stage. For reasonably comprehensible introductory accounts of model-theoretic semantics, see Martin (1987: Part II), Bach (1989), and (at a much fuller but still introductory level) Cann (1993). < previous page page_23 next page > < previous page page_24 next page > Page 24 3 The ID/LP format for grammars We are now going to examine some further shortcomings of PS-rules, and to propose a slightly different format for grammatical rules.

Some work in this area has argued that there are two consistent language types, head-initial and head-final, with the word order properties shown in Table 1. Table 1 Word order properties. Head-initial Head-final VO OV Prepositions Postpositions N-Adj Adj-N N-Demonstrative Demonstrative-N V-Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb-V Consistent languages of either type are in effect mirror-images of each other; see Smith (1978), who adds: A basic strategy for rough translations of descriptive prose from Japanese to English is first to identify the subject of the sentence, then to move to the end of each clause [the verb] and work up.

So our original example (48b) would be shown as (52). (52) (walk′ (Smith′)) Two-place predicates are usually shown with the subject and object in separate brackets, and the object closest to the verb. So (53) corresponds to (50b). (53) ((help′ (Jones′)) (Smith′) We can now examine how this is related to trees, and how the semantic representation is built up compositionally from the syntactic constituents. To take a simple and simplified example, totally ignoring issues such as tense, assume that each word in (54) (next page) is given an interpretation as a constant, viz.

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