By John C. Kricher
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Extra resources for A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests
Parker and Brown (2000) (cf. McElhinny et al. 2005) criticize studies of stratification for their lack of reproducibility, inconsistent terminology, and other weaknesses. Regardless of the difficulties, understanding stratification is at the core canopy science, and to accommodate a variety of research interests, the word is best applied flexibly (Moffett 2000). , Coxson and Nadkarni 1995), some researchers have uncovered complex internal patterns within canopies that act as atmospheric filters (Wiman et al.
W. Moffett Fig. 8 Open spaces within forests include shyness between tree crowns, as shown in a grove of Dryobalanops lanceolata trees in Peninsular Malaysia (above). Tree spacing is a challenge for the mobility of canopy-dwelling species, including for weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina), which bridge gaps by forming living chains of workers (below) (Both images are from Mark W. Moffett/ Minden Pictures. All rights reserved) aspects of this topic remain virtually ignored. Space between forest trees is commonly distinguished through the use of two categories: gaps, the result of plant death, and the openings resulting from shyness, which is often the result of diminished plant growth and reconfiguration—that is, plant foraging (Hutchings and de Kroon 1994), although physical abrasion can also be involved in shyness patterns (Franco 1986) (Fig.
All rights reserved) crown: in marine biology, a more inclusive term, epibiont, describes any nonparasitic species living on any part of the surface of another organism; Wahl 1997). For many research purposes, this idea suggests the value of expanding beyond the realm of canopy biology to fashion a comprehensive science of sessile communities, from crowns to roots (or their equivalents).