By Thomas Kuhne
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Extra info for A functional pattern system for object-oriented design
There is a great impedance mismatch between reality and software solution if we have to, say, deal with copies of a pressure tank every time pressure or temperature changes. Modeling a bank account with fair access to multiple users is a problem in functional languages [Abelson & Sussman87]. 88, Kuhnapfel93, ¨ Kuhnapfel ¨ & Große94]. Something fundamental and innocent looking as simple I/O has been a hard problem for functional languages. Many models, such lazy streams, continuation semantics, and systems model [Hudak & Sundaresh88, Gordon93b, Gordon93a] have been proposed to overcome the discrepancy between a referential transparent language and I/O side effects.
The problem was created by duplicating an expression (by unfolding exponentiation to multiplication) which also duplicated the computation amount. Alas, all we need to do is to record the duplication and to share computation results. Speaking in calculi terms we replace string reduction by graph reduction. 2 Concepts 15 (1 + 2)2 =⇒ (• ∗ •) =⇒ (• ∗ •) =⇒ 9 3 (1 + 2) causing (1 + 2) to be evaluated only once. The combination of normal-order reduction and sharing of expression results is known as call-by-need.
You rightfully consider these questions as silly but what about posing them again in a different context? , references, mutable objects, and identity come into play. For our purposes we may recall reduction semantics to mean: 1. No implicit state → No side-effects → Great freedom in reduction order. 2. No mutable objects nor identity → Aliasing is not an issue. 3 Higher-Order Functions Functions are first-class values often called first-class citizens. A function can be an argument to another function (downward-funarg) as well as be the result of another function (upward-funarg).