A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington

By J. R. Partington

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the shedding of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical compounds outlined the frightful volume of warfare. The gear and fabrics utilized in global warfare i'd were universal to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington presents a global survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek fireplace, and gunpowder.Greek fireplace, a composition Partington believes used to be made from a distilled petroleum fraction and different parts (but now not saltpetre), used to be so much famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in old warfare—to ecu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin booklet of fireplace, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the heritage of infernal machines, mines, canon, small palms, and artillery. His publication comprises chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including fireplace books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He strains the advance of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st identified point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The background of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the final historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of international locations. The historian of technological know-how is worried in general with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of expertise examines the advance within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how during which gunpowder has chanced on functions within the peaceable arts. the army historian bargains frequently with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the improvement of firearms and their use in war. No contemporary booklet in English (or for that subject in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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London. Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts, ed. Nicholson, Obs. Phys. Observations sur la Physique, sur I'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, ed. Rozier, Paris. Phil. Mag. The Philosophical Magazine, London. Phil. Trans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Philologus Suppl. Philologus Supplement. Plutarch, (a) De orac. defect. De defectu oraculorum. {b) Quast. conviv. Quaestioniones conviviales. N. Pliny, Historia Naturalium. ) Proc. Amer. Acad. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston.

Just what this "white naphtha," "white bitumen," or "filtered asphalt" was we do not know. It might be thought to be distilled petroleum, but distillation is generally supposed to be a somewhat later invention, although it is mentioned in a rudimentary form by Dioskourides (see ref. 249). The preparation of a "white naphtha" by a process of purification not involving distillation, and also by distillation, is mentioned in an Arabic text of 1225 (see ch. V). That mentioned by the Greek and Roman authors may have been made by filtration through a material like fullers' earth, but since they wrote at a time very near that when distillation was known, this process cannot be excluded.

Zeitschrift fur classische Philologie. fUr die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. Z. / . historische Waffen-md Kostumkunde. Zeitschrift fiir die historische Waffen-und Kostiimkunde. Z. Naturwiss. Zeitschrift fiir die Naturwissenschaften. ^* The zikkim in the Old Testament^ may have been incendiary arrows. ). The first recorded use of incendiary arrows {TTVP^OPOT O'COTOC) by the Greeks was in the Peloponnesian war (429 B . C . G. He assembled a large number of engineers from Greece, Italy and Carthage, and gave them every encouragement in their.

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