A notional theory of syntactic categories by John M. Anderson

By John M. Anderson

This ebook offers an cutting edge thought of syntactic different types and the lexical periods they outline. It revives the normal concept that those are to be extraordinary notionally (semantically). It permits there to be peripheral contributors of a lexical category that can now not evidently agree to the final definition. the writer proposes a notation in response to semantic gains which debts for the syntactic behaviour of sessions. The publication additionally provides a case for contemplating this type - back in quite conventional vein - to be simple to deciding upon the syntactic constitution of sentences. Syntactic constitution is hence erected in a truly constrained type, with no recourse to circulation or empty components.

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3) the distribution of verbs is included in that of nouns, and the former are thus simply a subclass of the latter. But, again, nouns are not quintessential predicators. In Russian, this is reflected in the fact that in the past tense the presence of a copula is required. 16), contends that 'there is no convincing syntactic or semantic reason for classifying "be" in English as a verb' (1977: 437). But its syntactic credentials are surely impeccable, and though as a verb it may not be Syntactic categories and notional features 23 notionally central, it nevertheless displays the relational, structure-inducing character I have attributed to P.

Only non-central, 'relational' nouns, such as father, enemy, are in a sense 'shifters'. Of course, the reference of a name (such as John) may be context-dependent; but names, unlike pronouns, are not understood as inherently so. We might recall here that Latham describes the pronoun as 'a variable name' (1862: §646); whereas nouns ('common names') and ('proper') names are invariable but differ in whether they 'are applied to a whole class of objects' or 'are appropriated to certain individual objects' (1862: §633) - with pronouns sharing the latter property with (proper) names (§636).

Anderson 1972; 1977: 105, 161, 282 n. 31; Emonds 1985: especially ch. 7). 13) {P} {N} {N,P} { } verb name noun functor Let us suppose this at least constitutes a minimal categorial system, such that in particular languages, each category displays a distinctive distribution, attributable to its notional character, and not (totally) included in that of another category. 14) a. The plumber is Fred b. Fred is a plumber c. g. 1). In terms of relations between the categories, we can say that the typical ('transitive') functor complements and is complemented by one of the other categories; the typical (non-impersonal) verb is complemented by functors; categories containing N typically complement functors.

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