A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani by Leslie H Stennes; Michigan State University. African Studies

By Leslie H Stennes; Michigan State University. African Studies Center

Show description

Read or Download A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani PDF

Best grammar books

Adjunct Adverbials in English (Studies in English Language)

During this unique learn, Hilde Hasselg? rd discusses using adverbials in English, via interpreting examples present in daily texts. Adverbials - clause parts that usually confer with conditions of time, area, cause and demeanour - disguise quite a number meanings and will be put before everything, within the heart or on the finish of a sentence.

Non-Projecting Words: A Case Study of Swedish Particles

Focusing totally on Swedish, a Germanic language whose debris haven't formerly been studied broadly, Non-Projecting phrases: A Case learn on Swedish debris develops a conception of non-projecting phrases within which debris are morphologically autonomous phrases that don't undertaking words. debris have lengthy constituted a puzzle for Germanic syntax, as they express houses of either morphological and syntactic constructs.

The Acquisition of Ergativity

Ergativity is among the major demanding situations either for linguistic and acquisition theories. This e-book is exclusive, taking a cross-linguistic method of the purchase of ergativity in a wide number of typologically specific languages. The chapters disguise languages from various households and from varied geographic parts with varied expressions of ergativity.

Extra resources for A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani

Sample text

It is brown. Erteschik-Shir (1997: 20) represents (7) with the help of two file cards of which one is headed by AI and the other one by dog2. The first card mentions 'Aj has a dog' and the second one mentions 'The dog2 (that AI has) is brown'. Notice that the first file card is not headed by the first person pronoun / or by the word Relation with the Referent 43 'speaker', but rather by a marker that identifies a specific individual as Aj. That is, the file cards do not appear to use any information that is provided by personal pronouns.

For example, Lak, belonging to the Lak-Dargva group, has developed agreement markers for representing a distinction between speech-act participants (first and second persons) and non-speech-act participants as shown in (28), quoted from Zirkov (1995: 95). There is no number distinction in third person. (28) 1,2 3 Singular Plural -ra -ru -r/-ri/-4> Helmbrecht refers to a hypothesis put forth by Burchuladze (1979) and other authors regarding the diachronic source of these personal markers. According to this hypothesis, these agreement markers represent old auxiliaries that were fused with the participial form of the main verb.

Notice, however, that this dissociation of personal pronouns from their referents is only a preferred characteristic and not an absolute necessity. It is helpful in making the pronouns function as efficient shifters. There are two main aspects of referents, namely their gender and number, which tend to get represented in personal pronouns in spite of the fact that such a representation makes the pronouns less efficient in their primary function of being shifters. In fact, 38 Pronouns personal pronouns appear to behave like the two-faced Janus in this respect.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.47 of 5 – based on 31 votes