By Carolyn D Berdanier
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Extra resources for Advanced nutrition
The 3-phosphoglycerate then goes to 2-phosphoglycerate and then to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). These are all bidirectional reactions that are also used in gluconeogenesis. The PEP is dephosphorylated to pyruvate with the formation of another ATP. Because of the energy lost to ATP formation at this step, this reaction is not reversible. Gluconeogenesis uses another enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), to reverse this step. Glycolysis uses pyruvate kinase to catalyze the reaction. At any rate, pyruvate can now be activated to acetyl CoA, which can enter the mitochondrial citric acid cycle.
Gluconeogenesis can use the carbon skeletons from a number of metabolites of glucose (lactate, pyruvate, and some of the triose phosphates) and also those from deaminated amino acids. Not all of the amino acids enter the gluconeogenic sequence at the same place. Some amino acids serve as substrates for glucose synthesis. Some enter as pyruvate while others enter the Krebs cycle at various points. 9 provides glucose to all cells in the body. Under normal dietary conditions, the glucose synthesized in the kidney is used by it as fuel to run its metabolism.
Both kinase reactions are rate-controlling reactions in that their activity determines the rate at which subsequent reactions proceed. The phosphofructokinase reaction is unique to the glycolytic sequence, while the glucokinase or hexokinase step is not. Thus, one could argue that the formation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is the first committed step in glycolysis. Glycolysis is inhibited when phosphofructokinase is inhibited. This occurs when levels of fatty acids in the cytosol rise, as in the instance of high rates of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation or with the feeding of high-fat diets.