Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular by F. F. Nord

By F. F. Nord


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The cytoplasmic fibrils in the central region are stretched and dehydrated, whereby water is exuded within the tips of the pseudopodia. This water is taken up by the fibrils of the peripheral region of the pseudopodia. These fibrils which are usually oriented in transverse direction are alternately hydrated and dehydrated. Their polypeptide chains are induced to be alternately 42 LUDWIK M O N N ~ folded and unfolded. Therefore annular constrictions move in the direction from the tips to the bases of the pseudopodia.

In rapidly growing cells the former prevails. Inactive organs atrophy because enzymic breakdown and reconstitution of the protoplasm are not stimulated. The protoplasm disintegrates spontaneously owing to the metastability of its colloids. From certain experiments the conclusion may be deduced that several energy-yielding enzyme systems are present within the same cells. One of these enzyme systems may produce the energy necessary for the continual reconstitution of the living substance (respiration of rest) while the others produce the energy required to bring about the reversible changes of the microscopic and submicroscopic structure underlying mitosis and various specific functions (excess respiration) such as muscle contraction, ciliary movement, nerve conduction, active transfer of lipide-insoluble substances, etc.

There is no evidence that the chromidia of a certain cell differ from each other (see page 11). It is probable that all chromidia of a certain cell have the same composition. Thus, practically all enzymes, present within the ground cytoplasm of a certain cell, must be represented within any chromidium. ; literature, see 58 and 61). Chromidia have all the essential properties of living matter. They grow, proliferate, have a certain metabolism and most probably irritability (see page FUNCTIONING OF THE CYTOPLASM 33 44).

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