Alpha effect by Childress

By Childress

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In vitro, animal and epidemiologic evidence linking leptin [23–25] or adiponectin [21, 26–28] individually to cancer risk is mixed. Associations between the adiponectin-to-leptin ratio and the metabolic syndrome [29–31] and some cancers [32–34] are reported. Further characterization of these links is needed. 1 Cytokines and Cross Talk Between Adipocytes, Macrophages, and Epithelial Cells Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with a low-grade, chronic state of inflammation characterized by increased circulating free fatty acids and chemoattraction of immune cells (such as macrophages that also produce inflammatory mediators) into the local milieu [35–37].

Leptin has direct effects on peripheral tissues, indirect effects on hypothalamic pathways and modulates immune function, cytokine production, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and other biological processes [18]. The leptin receptor has similar homology to class I cytokines that signal through the Janus kinase and signal transducer activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway that is often dysregulated in cancer [19]. Adiponectin is a hormone mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue. Levels of adiponectin, in contrast to leptin, negatively correlate with adiposity.

Foltz CJ, Fox JG, Cahill R, Murphy JC, Yan L, Shames B, Schauer DB (1998) Spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease in multiple mutant mouse lines: association with colonization by Helicobacter hepaticus. Helicobacter 3:69–78 46. Coussens LM, Werb Z (2002) Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420:860–867 47. Allavena P, Sica A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A (2008) The Yin-Yang of tumor-associated macrophages in neoplastic progression and immune surveillance. Immunol Rev 222:155–161 48. Koki A, Khan NK, Woerner BM, Dannenberg AJ, Olson L, Seibert K, Edwards D, Hardy M, Isakson P, Masterrer JL (2002) Cyclooxygenase-2 in human pathological disease.

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