By Alana Johns, Diane Massam, Juvenal Ndayiragije
This booklet includes innovative theoretical papers via best authors within the box, who additionally behavior unique box paintings and convey new facts to mild. It includes articles that follow the newest theoretical instruments to the world of ergativity, and discover matters that emerge. The articles are written via linguists with services in bringing unique facts to undergo on advanced theoretical concerns. the general topic of the quantity is the formal expression of the variety and bounds of ergativity. the most sections are at the nature of ergative and absolutive case, the antipassive, break up ergativity, and ergativity in languages now not typically thought of to be ergative. Languages investigated are Basque, Chukchi, Georgian, Halkomelem Salish, Hindi, Inuktitut, Kirundi, Malagasy, Niuean, Nuumiipuut?mt, Russian, Tongan, and Warlpiri.
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Extra info for Ergativity: Emerging Issues (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory)
The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. Levin, Beth. 1983. On the Nature of Ergativity. Doctoral dissertation, MIT. Levin, Juliette and Diane Massam. 1985. ’ NELS 15. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. GLSU. Manning, Christopher. 1994. Ergativity: Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University. Marantz, Alec. 1984. On the Nature of Grammatical Relations, Cambridge: MIT Press. Marantz, Alec. 1991. ’ Paper presented at ESCOL I, New Jersey. Marantz, Alec. 1993. , Theoretical Aspects of Bantu Grammar I.
Bittner and Hale 1996a,b; Bobaljik 1992, 1993; Marantz 1984; Anand and Nevins, this volume; and Ura, this volume), with the most common view being that either one or the other of absolutive or ergative case is equivalent to nominative in being an external case associated with an external head, while the other is, like accusative, an internal case. I will argue that at least in Niuean, such equivalences are not possible in any straightforward way because the two cases display hybrid characteristics when compared to the cases in an N/A system.
Both parts of the generalization are necessary. An argument cannot be ergative unless it is an agent, even if there is already an absolutive argument in the sentence, and an argument cannot be ergative even if it is an agent, unless there is another absolutive argument in the sentence. This can be seen by valency increasing operations such as locative advancement and instrumental advancement. First, we can see that an agent is not ergative unless the sentence is transitive. 8 6) a. ’ b. 148) However, if a locative argument is ‘promoted’ to direct object, the clause becomes transitive, and the agent or volitional argument is expressed in the ergative case, in compliance with the generalization in (5).